Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Articles
Published: 2024-04-30

Insights into substance abuse knowledge and attitudes among high school students in Anbar Province, Iraq

Department of Family and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Anbar University, Anbar, Iraq
Department of Family and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Anbar University, Anbar, Iraq
Students, high school, Substance, Drug, Abuse, Knowledge, Attitude, Iraq

Abstract

Background: The high prevalence of substance use among children and adolescents has become a major global public health concern. This study aims to explore adolescents' knowledge and attitudes toward substance abuse. 

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2nd to February 15th, 2023 in Ramadi City, Anbar Province, Iraq. Students from eight high schools participated, selected through a multistage sampling approach. The bivariate analysis included independent sample t-tests and one-way ANOVA. Furthermore, a multivariable linear regression analysis was employed to predict factors influencing knowledge and attitudes. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS version 16.

Results: The study included 415 students, with a mean age of 16.7 (±9.3) years, with a majority being male (52.8%). Accuracy rates for knowledge and attitude were 79.6% and 70.2%, respectively. About 79.3% of participants were familiar with terms related to drug abuse in Iraq. Regression analysis showed that higher knowledge scores were linked with male gender and a household income exceeding IQD 600,000 monthly (95% CI:1.311 to 2.923; P <0.001; and 95% CI:1.072 to 2.331; P =0.001), respectively. Attitudes toward drug abuse prevention were influenced by male participants and students with employed fathers (95% CI:1.245 to 4.302; P=0.025; and 95% CI: 2.073 to 6.737; P=0.032), respectively.

Conclusion: In conclusion, most of the students had sufficient knowledge and a constructive attitude toward drug use. Male gender, high income, and employed fathers were the main predictors.



Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

  1. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The Promise of Adolescence: Realizing Opportunity for All Youth. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2019. https://doi.org/10.17226/25388.
  2. Dahl RE, Allen NB, Wilbrecht L, Suleiman AB. Importance of investing in adolescence from a developmental science perspective. Nature. 2018 Feb 21;554(7693):441-450. doi: 10.1038/nature25770.
  3. Petrovska BB. Historical review of medicinal plants' usage. Pharmacogn Rev. 2012 Jan;6(11):1-5. doi: 10.4103/0973-7847.95849.
  4. United Nations, Office on Drugs and Crimes. UNODC World Drug Report 2023 warns of converging crises as illicit drug markets continue to expand. Available from: https://www.unodc.org/unodc/press/releases/2023/June/unodc-world-drug-report-2023-warns-of-converging-crises-as-illicit-drug-markets-continue-to-expand.html [Accessed on 9th October 2023].
  5. Nawi AM, Ismail R, Ibrahim F, Hassan MR, Manaf MRA, Amit N, Ibrahim N, Shafurdin NS. Risk and protective factors of drug abuse among adolescents: a systematic review. BMC Public Health. 2021 Nov 13;21(1):2088. doi: 10.1186/s12889-021-11906-2.
  6. Alhammad M, Aljedani R, Alsaleh M, Atyia N, Alsmakh M, Alfaraj A, Alkhunaizi A, Alwabari J, Alzaidi M. Family, Individual, and Other Risk Factors Contributing to Risk of Substance Abuse in Young Adults: A Narrative Review. Cureus. 2022 Dec 8;14(12):e32316. doi: 10.7759/cureus.32316.
  7. Lander L, Howsare J, Byrne M. The impact of substance use disorders on families and children: from theory to practice. Soc Work Public Health. 2013;28(3-4):194-205. doi: 10.1080/19371918.2013.759005.
  8. Ali Jadoo SA, Mahdy A, Al-ezzi BNAA- ezzi. Breaking the silence: navigating adolescent knowledge, attitude, and perception on substance abuse in Diyala Province, Iraq. Jidhealth [Internet]. 2024 Feb. 25 [cited 2024 Mar. 9];7(1):1007-14.
  9. Adebowale AT, Olatona FA, Abiola A-HO, Oridota ES, Goodman OO, Onajole AT. Knowledge, attitude, and practice of drug abuse among public secondary school students in Lagos, Nigeria. High Med Res J 2013;13:44-48.
  10. Mir MH, Gupta RK, Langer B, Kumari R, Mahajan R, Mir MT, Koul H, Majeed A, Hameed B, Nazir RM, Singh S. Pattern, knowledge and attitude regarding substance use among youth (11-24 years): findings from an exploratory survey. Int J Community Med Public Health. 2023;10(3):1218-1223. https://doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230643
  11. Ogochukwu AM, Gloria AC, Uchenna IN, Chibueze A. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Substance Use in Nigeria among Secondary School Students. CHRISMED J Health Res. 2022 Jan-Mar;9(1):23-30. DOI: 10.4103/cjhr.cjhr_180_20.
  12. Mohammed OH, E. Hossein Y, H. Mohamed A. Assessment of Knowledge and Attitudes of Secondary School Students Regarding Drug Abuse at Minia City. Minia Sci Nurs J. 2021;9(1):2-8. doi: 10.21608/msnj.2021.188058.
  13. Ahmed FT, Ali GYM. Evaluation of self-medication among Iraqi pharmacy students. Journal of Ideas in Health. 2019 Dec. 15;2(2):108-12. doi: 10.47108/jidhealth.vol2.iss2.34.
  14. Haddad L, Shotar A, Umlauf M, Al-Zyoud S. Knowledge of substance abuse among high school students in Jordan. J Transcult Nurs. 2010 Apr;21(2):143-50. doi: 10.1177/1043659609357632.
  15. Okwuikpo MI, Chionye SC, Ajaegbu VU, Maitanmi JO, Leslie TA. Knowledge And Perception Of Substance Abuse Among Teenagers In Selected Secondary Schools In Ajeromi Lga, Lagos State. IOSR Journal of Nursing and Health Science (IOSR-JNHS). 2020;9(3):42-50.
  16. United Nations. World Drug Report 2018. United Nations publication, Sales No. E.18.XI.9. 2018. Retrieved from https://www.unodc.org/wdr2018.
  17. Degenhardt L, Stockings E, Patton G, Hall WD, Lynskey M. The increasing global health priority of substance use in young people. Lancet Psychiatry. 2016;3(3):251–64. doi:10.1016/S2215-0366(15)00508-8.
  18. Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. Results from the 2016 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Detailed Tables. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration; 2017. https://www.samhsa.gov/data/sites/default/files/NSDUH-DetTabs-2016/NSDUH-DetTabs-2016.pdf. Accessed 17th April 2024.
  19. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS): 2004-2014. National Admissions to Substance Abuse Treatment Services. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration; 2016. https://wwwdasis.samhsa.gov/dasis2/teds_pubs/2014_teds_rpt_natl.pdf.
  20. NIDA. Sex and gender differences in substance use. National Institute on Drug Abuse, 4 May. 2022, https://nida.nih.gov/publications/research-reports/substance-use-in-women/sex-gender-differences-in-substance-use Accessed 17 Apr. 2024.
  21. Humensky JL. Are adolescents with high socioeconomic status more likely to engage in alcohol and illicit drug use in early adulthood? Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy. 2010 Aug 5;5:19. doi: 10.1186/1747-597X-5-19.
  22. Patrick ME, Wightman P, Schoeni RF, Schulenberg JE. Socioeconomic status and substance use among young adults: a comparison across constructs and drugs. J Stud Alcohol Drugs. 2012 Sep;73(5):772-82. doi: 10.15288/jsad.2012.73.772.
  23. Winters KC, Arria A. Adolescent Brain Development and Drugs. Prev Res. 2011;18(2):21-24.
  24. Mohammed MK, Ibraheem NM, Khudhair MA. Knowledge and attitude of substance abuse among the youths in Tikrit Iraq. J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol. 2022 Jan 21;28(2):e92-e98. doi: 10.47750/jptcp.2022.865.
  25. Al-Samarrai MAM, AL- Any BN, Al-Delaimy AK, Yahyaa BT, Ali Jadoo SA. Impact of internal displacement on psychosocial and health status of students residing in the hostel of Anbar University, Iraq. Journal of Ideas in Health. 2020 May 25 ;3(1):140-4. doi: 10.47108/jidhealth.vol3.iss1.25.
  26. Melkam M, Segon T, Nakie G, Nenko G, Demilew D. Substance use and associated factors among high school students in Northwest Ethiopia. Pan Afr Med J. 2023 Apr 6;44:162. doi: 10.11604/pamj.2023.44.162.35168.
  27. Alhammad M, Aljedani R, Alsaleh M, Atyia N, Alsmakh M, Alfaraj A, Alkhunaizi A, Alwabari J, Alzaidi M. Family, Individual, and Other Risk Factors Contributing to Risk of Substance Abuse in Young Adults: A Narrative Review. Cureus. 2022 Dec 8;14(12):e32316. doi: 10.7759/cureus.32316.
  28. Kenna GA, Wood MD. Family history of alcohol and drug use in healthcare professionals. J Subst Use. 2005;10(4):225-238. doi: 10.1080/1465989041233151946.
  29. Morales AM, Jones SA, Kliamovich D, Harman G, Nagel BJ. Identifying Early Risk Factors for Addiction Later in Life: A Review of Prospective Longitudinal Studies. Curr Addict Rep. 2020 Mar;7(1):89-98. doi: 10.1007/s40429-019-00282-y.
  30. Ali Jadoo SA, Alhusseiny AH, Yaseen SM, Al-Samarrai MAM, Mahmood AS. Evaluation of health system in Iraq from people’s point of view: a comparative study of two different eras. Journal of Ideas in Health. 2021 May 20 ;4(2):380-8. doi: 10.47108/jidhealth.vol4.iss2.100.
  31. Yahyaa B, Al-Rawi R. Patient satisfaction about the primary health care services in Anbar province, Iraq. Journal of Ideas in Health. 2024 Feb. 29;7(1):1020-5. doi: 10.47108/jidhealth.vol7.iss1.331.
  32. Ali Jadoo SA, Yaseen SM, Al-Samarrai MAM, Mahmood AS. Patient satisfaction in outpatient medical care: the case of Iraq. Journal of Ideas in Health. 2020 Aug. 26 ;3(2):176-82. doi: 10.47108/jidhealth.vol3.iss2.44.


How to Cite

1.
Thamir B, Al-Rawi R. Insights into substance abuse knowledge and attitudes among high school students in Anbar Province, Iraq. jidhealth [Internet]. 2024 Apr. 30 [cited 2024 Jun. 20];7(2):1037-43. Available from: https://jidhealth.com/index.php/jidhealth/article/view/334